THE CHARACTER OF A METHODIST
by John Wesley
"Not as though I had already attained."
TO THE READER [Preface]
1. SINCE the name first came abroad
into the world, many have been at a loss to know what a Methodist is; what are the
principles and the practice of those who are commonly called by that name; and what the
distinguishing marks of this sect, "which is everywhere spoken against."
2. And it being generally believed, that I was able to give the clearest account of
these things, (as having been one of the first to whom that name was given, and the person
by whom the rest were supposed to be directed), I have been called upon, in all manner of
ways, and with the utmost earnestness, so to do. I yield as last to the continued
importunity both of friends and enemies; and do now give the clearest account I can, in
the presence of the Lord and Judge of heaven and earth, of the principles and practice
whereby those who are called Methodists are distinguished from other men.
3. I say those who are called Methodists; for, let it be well observed, that this is
not a name which they take to themselves, but one fixed upon them by way of reproach,
without their approbation or consent. It was first given to three or four young men at
Oxford, by a student of Christ Church; either in allusion to the ancient sect of
Physicians so called, from their teaching, that almost all diseases might be cured by a
specific method of diet and exercise, or from their observing a more regular method of
study and behaviour than was usual with those of their age and station.
4. I should rejoice (so little ambitious am I to be at the head of any sect or party)
if the very name might never be mentioned more, but be buried in eternal oblivion. But if
that cannot be, at least let those who will use it, know the meaning of the word they use.
Let us not always be fighting in the dark. Come, and let us look one another in the face.
And perhaps some of you who hate what I am called, may love what I Can by the grace of
God; or rather, what "I follow after, if that I may apprehend that for which also I
am apprehended of Christ Jesus."
THE CHARACTER OF A METHODIST
1. THE distinguishing marks of a
Methodist are not his opinions of any sort. His assenting to this or that scheme of
religion, his embracing any particular set of notions, his espousing the judgment of one
man or of another, are all quite wide of the point. Whosoever, therefore, imagines that a
Methodist is a man of such or such an opinion, is grossly ignorant of the whole affair; he
mistakes the truth totally. We believe, indeed, that "all Scripture is given by the
inspiration of God;" and herein we are distinguished from Jews, Turks, and Infidels.
We believe the written word of God to be the only and sufficient rule both of Christian
faith and practice; and herein we are fundamentally distinguished from those of the Romish
Church. We believe Christ to be the eternal, supreme God; and herein we are distinguished
from the Socinians and Arians. But as to all opinions which do not strike at the root of
Christianity, we think and let think. So that whatsoever they are, whether right or wrong
they are no distinguishing marks of a Methodist.
2. Neither are words or phrases of any sort. We do not place our religion, or any part
of it, in being attached to any peculiar mode of speaking, any quaint or uncommon set of
expressions. The most obvious, easy, common words, wherein our meaning can be conveyed, we
prefer before others, both on ordinary occasions, and when we speak of the things of God.
We never, therefore, willingly or designedly, deviate from the most usual way of speaking;
unless when we express scripture truths in scripture words, which, we presume, no
Christian will condemn. Neither do we affect to use any particular expressions of
Scripture more frequently than others, unless they are such as are more frequently used by
the inspired writers themselves. So that it is as gross an error, to place the marks of a
Methodist in his words, as in opinions of any sort.
3. Nor do we desire to be distinguished by actions, customs, or usages, of an
indifferent nature. Our religion does not lie in doing what God has not enjoined, or
abstaining from what he hath not forbidden. It does not lie in the form of our apparel, in
the posture of our body, or the covering of our heads; nor yet in abstaining from
marriage, or from meats and drinks, which are all good if received with thanksgiving.
Therefore, neither will any man, who knows whereof he affirms, fix the mark of a Methodist
here,--in any actions or customs purely indifferent, undetermined by the word of God.
4. Nor, lastly, is he distinguished by laying the whole stress of religion on any
single part of it. If you say, "Yes, he is; for he thinks 'we are saved by faith
alone:'" I answer, You do not understand the terms. By salvation he means holiness of
heart and life. And this he affirms to spring from true faith alone. Can even a nominal
Christian deny it? Is this placing a part of religion for the whole? "Do we then make
void the law through faith? God forbid! Yea, we establish the law." We do not place
the whole of religion (as too many do, God knoweth) either in doing no harm, or in doing
good, or in using the ordinances of God. No, not in all of them together; wherein we know
by experience a man may labour many years, and at the end have no religion at all, no more
than he had at the beginning. Much less in any one of these; or, it may be, in a scrap of
one of them: Like her who fancies herself a virtuous woman, only because she is not a
prostitute; or him who dreams he is an honest man, merely because he does not rob or
steal. May the Lord God of my fathers preserve me from such a poor, starved religion as
this! Were this the mark of a Methodist, I would sooner choose to be a sincere Jew, Turk,
5. "What then is the mark? Who is a Methodist, according to your own
account?" I answer: A Methodist is one who has "the love of God shed abroad in
his heart by the Holy Ghost given unto him;" one who "loves the Lord his God
with all his heart, and with all his soul, and with all his mind, and with all his
strength." God is the joy of his heart, and the desire of his soul; which is
constantly crying out, "Whom have I in heaven but thee? and there is none upon earth
that I desire beside thee! My God and my all! Thou art the strength of my heart, and my
6. He is therefore happy in God, yea, always happy, as having in him "a well of
water springing up into everlasting life," and overflowing his soul with peace and
joy. "Perfect love" having now "cast out fear," he "rejoices
evermore." He "rejoices in the Lord always," even "in God his
Saviour;" and in the Father, "through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom he hath now
received the atonement." "Having" found "redemption through his blood,
the forgiveness of his sins," he cannot but rejoice, whenever he looks back on the
horrible pit out of which he is delivered; when he sees "all his transgressions
blotted out as a cloud, and his iniquities as a thick cloud." He cannot but rejoice,
whenever he looks on the state wherein he now is; "being justified freely, and having
peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ." For "he that believeth, hath the
witness" of this "in himself;" being now the son of God by faith.
"Because he is a son, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into his heart,
crying, Abba, Father!" And "the Spirit itself beareth witness with his spirit,
that he is a child of God." He rejoiceth also, whenever he looks forward, "in
hope of the glory that shall be revealed;" yea, this his joy is full, and all his
bones cry out, "Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who,
according to his abundant mercy, hath begotten me again to a living hope--of an
inheritance incorruptible, undefiled, and that fadeth not away, reserved in heaven for
7. And he who hath this hope, thus "full of immortality, in everything giveth
thanks;" as knowing that this (whatsoever it is) "is the will of God in Christ
Jesus concerning him ." From him, therefore, he cheerfully receives all, saying,
"Good is the will of the Lord;" and whether the Lord giveth or taketh away,
equally "blessing the name of the Lord." For he hath "learned, in
whatsoever state he is, therewith to be content." He knoweth "both how to be
abased and how to abound. everywhere and in all things he is instructed both to be full
and to be hungry, both to abound and suffer need." Whether in ease or pain, whether
in sickness or health, whether in life or death, he giveth thanks from the ground of his
heart to Him who orders it for good; knowing that as "every good gift cometh from
above," so none but good can come from the Father of Lights, into whose hand he has
wholly committed his body and soul, as into the hands of a faithful Creator. He is
therefore "careful" (anxiously or uneasily) "for nothing" as having
"cast all his care on Him that careth for him," and "in all things"
resting on him, after "making his request known to him with thanksgiving."
8. For indeed he "prays without ceasing." It is given him "always to
pray, and not to faint." Not that he is always in the house of prayer; though he
neglects no opportunity of being there. Neither is he always on his knees, although he
often is, or on his face, before the Lord his God. Nor yet is he always crying aloud to
God, or calling upon him in words: For many times "the Spirit maketh intercession for
him with groans that cannot be uttered." But at all times the language of his heart
is this: "Thou brightness of the eternal glory, unto thee is my heart, though without
a voice, and my silence speaketh unto thee." And this is true prayer, and this alone.
But his heart is ever lifted up to God, at all times and in all places. In this he is
never hindered, much less interrupted, by any person or thing. In retirement or company,
in leisure, business, or conversation, his heart is ever with the Lord. Whether he lie
down or rise up, God is in all his thoughts; he walks with God continually, having the
loving eye of his mind still fixed upon him, and everywhere "seeing Him that is
9. And while he thus always exercises his love to God, by praying without ceasing,
rejoicing evermore, and in everything giving thanks, this commandment is written in his
heart, "That he who loveth God, love his brother also." And he accordingly loves
his neighbour as himself; he loves every man as his own soul. His heart is full of love to
all mankind, to every child of "the Father of the spirits of all flesh." That a
man is not personally known to him, is no bar to his love; no, nor that he is known to be
such as he approves not, that he repays hatred for his good-will. For he "loves his
enemies;" yea, and the enemies of God, "the evil and the unthankful." And
if it be not in his power to "do good to them that hate him," yet he ceases not
to pray for them, though they continue to spurn his love, and still "despitefully use
him and persecute him."
10. For he is "pure in heart." The love of God has purified his heart from
all revengeful passions, from envy, malice, and wrath, from every unkind temper or malign
affection. It hath cleansed him from pride and haughtiness of spirit, whereof alone cometh
contention. And he hath now "put on bowels of mercies, kindness, humbleness of mind,
meekness, longsuffering:" so that he "forbears and forgives, if he had a quarrel
against any; even as God in Christ bath forgiven him." And indeed all possible ground
for contention, on his part, is utterly cut off. For none can take from him what he
desires; seeing he "loves not the world, nor" any of "the things of the
world ;" being now "crucified to the world, and the world crucified to
him;" being dead to all that is in the world, both to "the lust of the flesh,
the lust of the eye, and the pride of life." For "all his desire is unto God,
and to the remembrance of his name."
11. Agreeable to this his one desire, is the one design of his life, namely, "not
to do his own will, but the will of Him that sent him." His one intention at all
times and in all things is, not to please himself, but Him whom his soul loveth. He has a
single eye. And because "his eye is single, his whole body is full of light."
Indeed, where the loving eye of the soul is continually fixed upon God, there can be no
darkness at all, "but the whole is light; as when the bright shining of a candle doth
enlighten the house." God then reigns alone. All that is in the soul is holiness to
the Lord. There is not a motion in his heart, but is according to his will. Every thought
that arises points to Him, and is in obedience to the law of Christ.
12. And the tree is known by its fruits. For as he loves God, so he keeps his
commandments; not only some, or most of them, but all, from the least to the greatest. He
is not content to "keep the whole law, and offend in one point;" but has, in all
points, "a conscience void of offence towards God and towards man." Whatever God
has forbidden, he avoids; whatever God hath enjoined, he doeth; and that whether it be
little or great, hard or easy, joyous or grievous to the flesh. He "runs the way of
God's commandments," now he hath set his heart at liberty. It is his glory so to do;
it is his daily crown of rejoicing, "to do the will of God on earth, as it is done in
heaven;" knowing it is the highest privilege of "the angels of God, of those
that excel in strength, to fulfil his commandments, and hearken to the voice of his
13. All the commandments of God he accordingly keeps, and that with all his might. For
his obedience is in proportion to his love, the source from whence it flows. And
therefore, loving God with all his heart, he serves him with all his strength. He
continually presents his soul and body a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God;
entirely and without reserve devoting himself, all he has, and all he is, to his glory.
All the talents he has received, he constantly employs according to his Master's will;
every power and faculty of his soul, every member of his body. Once he "yielded"
them "unto sin" and the devil, "as instruments of unrighteousness ;"
but now, "being alive from the dead, he yields" them all "as instruments of
righteousness unto God."
14. By consequence, whatsoever he doeth, it is all to the glory of God. In all his
employments of every kind, he not only aims at this, (which is implied in having a single
eye,) but actually attains it. His business and refreshments, as well as his prayers, all
serve this great end. Whether he sit in his house or walk by the way, whether he lie down
or rise up, he is promoting, in all he speaks or does, the one business of his life;
whether he put on his apparel, or labour, or eat and drink, or divert himself from too
wasting labour, it all tends to advance the glory of God, by peace and good-will among
men. His one invariable rule is this, "Whatsoever ye do, in word or deed, do it all
in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God and the Father by him."
15. Nor do the customs of the world at all hinder his "running the race that is
set before him." He knows that vice does not lose its nature, though it becomes ever
so fashionable: and remembers, that "every man is to give an account of himself to
God." He cannot, therefore, "follow" even "a multitude to do
evil." He cannot "fare sumptuously every day," or "make provision for
the flesh to fulfil the lusts thereof." He cannot "lay up treasures upon
earth," any more than he can take fire into his bosom. He cannot "adorn
himself," on any pretense, "with gold or costly apparel." He cannot join in
or countenance any diversion which has the least tendency to vice of any kind. He cannot
"speak evil" of his neighbour, any more than he can lie either for God or man.
He cannot utter an unkind word of any one; for love keeps the door of his lips. He cannot
speak "idle words;" "no corrupt communication" ever "comes out of
his mouth," as is all that "which is" not "good to the use of
edifying," not "fit to minister grace to the hearers." But "whatsoever
things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things areas justly "of
good report," he thinks, and speaks, and acts, "adorning the Gospel of our Lord
Jesus Christ in all things."
16. Lastly. As he has time, he "does good unto all men;" unto neighbours and
strangers, friends and enemies: And that in every possible kind; not only to their bodies,
by "feeding the hungry, clothing the naked, visiting those that are sick or in
prison;" but much more does he labour to do good to their souls, as of the ability
which God giveth; to awaken those that sleep in death; to bring those who are awakened to
the atoning blood, that, "being justified by faith, they may have peace with
God;" and to provoke those who have peace with God to abound more in love and in good
works. And he is willing to "spend and be spent herein," even "to be
offered up on the sacrifice and service of their faith," so they may "all come
unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ."
17. These are the principles and practices of our sect; these are the marks of a true
Methodist. By these alone do those who are in derision so called, desire to be
distinguished from other men. If any man say, "Why, these are only the common
fundamental principles of Christianity!" thou hast said; so I mean; this is the very
truth; I know they are no other; and I would to God both thou and all men knew, that I,
and all who follow my judgment, do vehemently refuse to be distinguished from other men,
by any but the common principles of Christianity,--the plain, old Christianity that I
teach, renouncing and detesting all other marks of distinction. And whosoever is what I
preach, (let him be called what he will, for names change not the nature of things,) he is
a Christian, not in name only, but in heart and in life. He is inwardly and outwardly
conformed to the will of God, as revealed in the written word. He thinks, speaks, and
lives, according to the method laid down in the revelation of Jesus Christ. His soul is
renewed after the image of God, in righteousness and ion all true holiness. And having the
mind that was in Christ, he so walks as Christ also walked.
18. By these marks, by these fruits of a living faith, do we labour to distinguish
ourselves from the unbelieving world, from all those whose minds or lives are not
according to the Gospel of Christ. But from real Christians, of whatsoever denomination
they be, we earnestly desire not to be distinguished at all, not from any who sincerely
follow after what they know they have not yet attained. No: "Whosoever doeth the will
of my Father which is in heaven, the same is my brother, and sister, and mother." And
I beseech you, brethren, by the mercies of God, that we be in no wise divided among
ourselves. Is thy heart right, as my heart is with thine? I ask no farther question. If it
be, give me thy hand. For opinions, or terms, let us not destroy the work of God. Dost
thou love and serve God? It is enough. I give thee the right hand of fellowship. Ii there
be any consolation in Christ, if any comfort of love, if any fellowship of the Spirit, if
any bowels and mercies; let us strive together for the faith of the Gospel; walking worthy
of the vocation wherewith we are called; with all lowliness and meekness, with
long-suffering, forbearing one another in love, endeavouring to keep the unity of the
Spirit in the bond of peace; remembering, there is one body, and one Spirit, even as we
are called with one hope of our calling; "one Lord, one faith, one baptism; one God
and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in you all."